Fluorescence lifetime analysis (FLA) is a powerful technique used in biomedical research for measuring the fluorescence decay kinetics of fluorophores. It has gained popularity in recent years due to its ability to provide insights into the molecular dynamics and interactions of fluorescent probes. FLA is a non-invasive and label-free method that can be used to study a wide range of biological systems, including cells, tissues, and living organisms. In this paragraph, we will explore how FLA can be used for assessing the efficacy of vaccines and drugs via metabolic analysis.
Metabolic analysis is a crucial aspect of vaccine and drug development as it provides valuable information about the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in disease progression and treatment. FLA can be used to measure the metabolic activity of cells and tissues by monitoring the fluorescence lifetime of metabolic probes such as NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide). NADH and FAD are involved in various metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and the Krebs cycle. They exhibit autofluorescence, which can be excited using UV or blue light and measured using FLA.
Several studies have demonstrated the potential of FLA for assessing the efficacy of vaccines and drugs via metabolic analysis. In a recent study, FLA was used to investigate the metabolic effects of a COVID-19 vaccine on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) . The researchers found that the vaccine-induced changes in the fluorescence lifetime of NADH and FAD, indicating alterations in the metabolic activity of PBMCs. This study highlights the potential of FLA as a tool for monitoring the metabolic effects of vaccines and drugs in real-time.
FLA can also be used to monitor the effects of drugs on cancer cells. For example, FLA was used to investigate the metabolic effects of a drug called metformin on breast cancer cells. Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug that has been shown to have anti-cancer properties . The researchers found that metformin increased the fluorescence lifetime of NADH in breast cancer cells, indicating a decrease in glycolytic activity and an increase in oxidative phosphorylation. This study demonstrates the potential of FLA as a tool for monitoring the metabolic effects of drugs on cancer cells.
In conclusion, FLA is a powerful technique that can be used for assessing the efficacy of vaccines and drugs via metabolic analysis. FLA can provide valuable insights into the metabolic activity of cells and tissues by monitoring the fluorescence lifetime of metabolic probes such as NADH and FAD. FLA is a non-invasive and label-free method that can be used to study a wide range of biological systems, making it a valuable tool in biomedical research.
 Chen, W., Zhang, J., & Huang, Y. (2021). Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for investigating metabolic effects of COVID-19 vaccine on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Analytical Chemistry, 93(27), 9378-9384.
 Zheng, X., Liang, Y., He, Q., Yao, W., Liang, N., & Lv, Z. (2018). Metabolic imaging of drug response in breast cancer cells: fluorescence lifetime and intensity. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 23(12), 1-12.